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KmgM Letter 


An Austin-tatiously Glorious Time 

Lewis Carroll at Texas? Why, there's even a book 
by that name! 1 Austin resident Alan Tannenbaum, together 
with Stephanie Lovett, arranged for a spectacular weekend 
deep in the heart of Texas, centered around the fabulous 
holdings of the University of Texas at Austin (UTA). 

On Friday, October 27 th , the festivities began with 
the eighth Maxine Schaefer Memorial reading and book 
distribution taking place in a classroom of Rodriguez 
Elementary school in southwest Austin. About 45 children, 
mostly of Hispanic background, were treated to a reading 
of "Pig and Pepper" by Lena Salins, Ellen Schaefer-Salins, 
Edward Wakeling, Selwyn Goodacre, and Joel Birenbaum. 
A dinner that night was held at the 
Mirabelle restaurant, with all invited. 
The legendary Byron Sewell (below) 
read a hilarious parody called "The 
Mock Bison" from his Alice's 
Adventures in Banff. The board met 
afterward, which lasted well into the 
night, as they discussed the Spring 
2001 gathering, which will take 
place April 21 st , 2001 at the Fales 
Library (of N. Y.U.) in New York and 
will feature talks by Morton Cohen 
(on collector Alfred Berol), Dr. 
Hugues Lebailly, and Roberta 
Rogow (author of the C.L. Dodgson/ 
Arthur Conan Doyle mystery 

The Harry Ransom 
Humanities Research Center (HRC) 
at UTA, which holds three very 
significant Carroll collections - the 
historically important Warren 
Weaver, the more modern Byron 
Sewell, and the Helmut Gernsheim 
of photographs and albums - was our 
gracious host for the Saturday gathering. The HRC had hosted 
our Fall 1985 convocation, and has been much in the 
Carrollian news recently for their "Reflections in a Looking- 
Glass" traveling exhibition of his photography. 

Despite the difficulties in parking (due to a football 
game, which is Taken Very Seriously there 2 ) and the early 
start time, there was a good turnout of about forty. An exhibit 
had been set up in the foyer, with samples of their holdings, 
including the 1865 "India" AW and Carroll's "Commonplace 
Book", which was housed, perversely, in the William H. 
Koester collection of Edgar Allen Poe, which may be the 
reason that nothing in that book had yet been published [until 
now - see facing page]. It includes many fascinating items, 
mainly to do with alphabets, codes and ciphers, but also 
some Chinese characters and other oddments that clearly 
interested Dodgson at the time. In 1856, for 1 February, 
Dodgson wrote in his diary: "Began a MS book for 
miscellaneous entries of anything worth remembering and 
referring to, which belongs to no special book." This is likely 
to be the referent. 

Other items included a publisher's dummy of 
Euclid and His Modern Rivals with CLD's handwritten 
marginal notes; letters; a copy of drawings made with his 
Electric Pen; and many fine samples of the assets in their 
collections (translations, photographs, manuscripts, etc.). 
Our President Stephanie Lovett welcomed us and 
thanked Alan for all his hard work and hospitality. [Amen!] 
Cathy Henderson, Associate Librarian of the HRC gave us 
a brief overview of their incredible holdings of rare books 
and manuscripts. Although they specialize in 19 th and 20 th 
century literature, film, theater, and photography, their 
possessions (about 800,000 volumes and 37 million 
manuscripts!) range from incunabula and a Gutenberg Bible 
to the 21 st century. 

President emeritus Sandor 

Burstein gave a welcoming speech 

to Byron Sewell. The multitalented 

Byron (who studied art for three 

years at UTA) has written, 

illustrated, and published many 

dozens of outrageously delightful 

Alice-themed works over the last 

quarter-century through his 

"Chicken Little's Press", the 

LCSNA, and various commercial 

publishers. A few highlights must 

suffice here - his illustrated Snark 

with "concertina"-style folds, his 

brilliant bilingual AWs in Pitjan- 

tjatjara (aboriginal Australian) and 

Korean, the two issues of Scientific 

Alician, and his decades-long 

compendium of the American AW 

editions through 1960, Much of a 

Muchness. Listing his manifold 

contributions to our world would be 

nigh-to-impossible, but August 

Imholtz has spent many months 

compiling an "interim" bibliography - "interim" as Byron 

is still creating his fabulous works - which is called Enough 

of a Muchness and was distributed as a keepsake to members 

in attendance. Byron, a chemical engineer and father of two 

young girls, has been away from the Carrollian world for a 

spell, and so was "welcomed back with extreme delight and 

joy", as Sandor put it, a sentiment shared by all, especially 

as he was with us in person. 

Our first lecture was by Roy Flukinger, Senior 
Curator of the HRC Photography and Film Collection. His 
fine talk "After Words", speaking on the place of 
photography in Dodgson 's life and his place in the early years 
of the new art form, was an elaboration on his essay 
published as the "afterword" of the "Reflections" catalog 
(above). "Throughout his writings, Dodgson characterized 
photography as many things: art, pastime, recreation, hobby, 
profession, devotion, entertainment, fascination, practice, 
chief interest, and his 'one amusement'." Flukinger dealt 
with the dichotomy of the medium - a blend of art and hard 

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a page from Carroll's "Commonplace Book" reproduced with the kind permission of 
The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center 
The University of Texas at Austin 

science - and its "inevitable" attraction to the similarly- 
conflicted CLD; the place of commercial printers in his 
work; the province of cropping, retouching, and hand- 
coloring; and the importance of his photograph albums. 
Thirty-three were sold after his death; today only thirteen 
are of known whereabouts, five of them in the HRC 
collection. Roy concluded poetically "As any photographer 
who has slipped beneath the dark cloth and focused a portion 
of the world upon its ground glass can tell you, the eloquent 
mirror of the lens inverts and reverses that world - optically, 
mathematically, and magically. As the Rev. Charles L. 
Dodgson posed his subjects and viewed them through his 
lens he created his own special world and, emerging from 
the dark cloth as Lewis Carroll, brought back for all of us 
many special faces, scenes, and dreams from that wondrous 
dimension: where light and life, alongside imagination and 
truth, can flourish as they did within his very soul." 

A short break enabled us to examine the exhibit 
more carefully. 

Edward Wakeling, scholar, collector, editor of 
Carroll's complete Diaries, chairman of the Editorial Board 
of the LCS (UK)'s journal, The Carrollian, began his talk 
"Bringing Lewis Carroll's Photography into Better Focus" 
with a list of forty-two or so questions, which he began to 
answer over the course of his fascinating lecture. 
(Fortunately for those not present, Edward's vast knowledge 
will be available next year in a book containing 400 lesser- 
known CLD photographs, which he has written with 
photographic historian Roger Taylor, and is scheduled to be 
published by Princeton University Press next October.) 
Wakeling "just happened" to have his four-week resident 
Research Fellowship at the HRC overlap with this meeting. 
Wakeling estimates Dodgson to have taken three 
thousand pictures during his twenty-five year photographic 
career. Dodgson's register of them, indexed by the numbers 
which he scratched on the negative plates, has most 
unfortunately been lost. Wakeling, with the help of modern 
database techniques, is in the process of re-creating it, and 
has over fifteen hundred images identified by date, sitter, 
and so on, correcting many of the past errors in other 
volumes. Other data are forthcoming, but whether we will 
ever have the complete catalogue raisonne of all his images 
is doubtful. Fortunately, the aforementioned volume will 
include a listing of all known images. 

Edward told some anecdotes about the "jigsaw 
puzzle" he was solving, including the identification of an 
album by "R.S" which came into his hands as it had a picture 
of CLD. Wakeling identified it as the work of Reginald 
Southey, CLD's great friend who had taught him the art. 
Edward, ever the collector, attempted to downplay its 
significance and purchase it outright, but was turned down 
and it eventually sold at auction for £23,500. Happily, it 
was then donated to Princeton. 

Edward's collaborator, Roger Taylor, sees three 
distinct periods in Dodgson's work: an early one of learning 
and mild experimentation; the Badcock's Yard studio years 
with its Pre-Raphaelite ideals; and the Tom Quad studio with 

more posed, deliberate portraiture and tableaux. They 
estimate that 30% of Dodgson's photos are of adults, 6% 
of his own family, 4% of scenery, and 10% miscellaneous 
still-lifes and so on. Half of his oeuvre were therefore of 
children. There are only 30 of the Liddells, 50 of Xie 
Kitchin, and about 30 nudes (1% of his total oeuvre) 
involving the children of eight families. 

Edward compared the work in the two studios, 
discussed CLD's composition, his commercial outings, and 
his reasons for giving up the art form [the letter Wakeling 
cited as the best evidence was published in the Knight 
Letter 57, page 4]. He concluded his talk: "Photography 
became an extravagance that could be put aside. Yet we have 
an opus of work at the birth of photography covering a 
quarter of a century that has stood the march of time and 
established Dodgson as a foremost photographer of his age." 

Next, August Imholtz, representing the nominating 
committee (Ellie Luchinsky, Janet Jurist, and himself), 
proposed the following slate of officers for the next two 

President: Stephanie Lovett 

Vice-President: Mark Burstein 

Treasurer: Francine Abeles 

Secretary: Cindy Watter 

Directors: Pat Griffin and Germaine Weaver (no 
relation to Warren) 

They were formally elected by acclamation without 
noticeable opposition. 

We then went downstairs for lunch, where another 
exhibit had been prepared from the Sewell collection. 

Our postprandial activity was a panel on Warren 
Weaver (1894-1978) - collector, pioneer cyberneticist, and 
author of the seminal Alice in Many Tongues - whose 
Carroll collection resides at the HRC. Moderator Charlie 
Lovett acquired, from Weaver's daughter, an album 
containing fifty years of Weaver's correspondence and so 
was able to quote generously therefrom. "From my early 
childhood I was interested in acquiring, reading, and hoarding 
books. I still have a tattered and soiled copy of AW which 
has, on the reverse of the frontispiece, a stamped notice 
(how proud I was of that rubber stamp) 'Warren Weaver, 
No. 1'. It was the first book I owned and it has, with me, 
held a preferred position ever since." 

Weaver's journey continued through the California 
Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin, 
where he became Professor of Mathematics - but more 
importantly (for us) found a small "elementary discussion 
of a dull topic in Algebra" in a catalogue which he bought 
"for a dollar or two" from a dealer who did not remember 
that the "C.L.Dodgson" who had inscribed it was a rather 
important personage. 

Over the next thirty-five years, Weaver would 
become a foundation executive. "As one of the directors of 
the Rockefeller Foundation, it was part of my business to 
travel very widely. And this, with the accompanying chance 
to drop into the shops of book dealers in dozens of 
countries, together with my professional interest in the 

problems of translating from language to language, led me 
to concentrate on the translations of Alice." He also 
recruited book scouts from among his colleagues, including 
several Nobel laureates. 

Weaver's interest in machine translation dates at 
least back to 1947, and his The Mathematical Theory of 
Communication (1949, with Claude Shannon), is 
considered a cornerstone of information age thought. His 
publications on scientific and mathematical topics are 

A letter to a professor of English at UTA dated 2 
February 1965 begins "I have a large Carroll collection, 
containing roughly fifty presentation copies and many, if 
indeed not most, of the more rare items. In particular I have 
a very special presentation copy of the 1 866 Macmillan 
Alice, both variants of the Appleton 1866, and a copy, in 
original binding, of the excessively rare 1865... At the age 
of 71 I am beginning to wonder what is going to happen to 
this collection!". This was the beginning of what became 
Harry Ransom's purchase of the collection and its eventual 
home in the building in which we were sitting. The price for 
the treasures he had accumulated over fifty years - including 
the 1 865 "India" Alice - was (hold on to your hats) $65,000. 
And Warren lived another thirteen years. 

Weaver's role as a mathematician and expositor 
of modern science was next discussed by Fran Abeles. At 
his death, CLD left a box of 62 mathematical packets, which 
was eventually purchased by Morris Parrish in 1929. Weaver 
was asked to look over this Nachlafi. Dodgson's emphasis 
on axioms and logic in his development of topics was at 
odds with the more applied approach Weaver favored, a 
difference that contributed to his underestimation of CLD's 
prowess in this field. Weaver's paper was initially published 
in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.* 

Dr. Abeles identified and presented a few important 
but hitherto unpublished major pieces from this collection, 
and chose a few unusual problems and methods for us to 
enjoy. Among the former are a book on "Circle Squaring" 
aimed at discouraging dilettantes; one on a theory of parallel 
lines that would include geometric infinitesimals; a second 
book on determinants; and a system of memorizing 
logarithms, making use of his "Memoria Technica". Among 
the latter were a rule for computing interest in days, a new 
method for multiplying by a decimal greater than .5, and 
methods for rapid computation, which enabled him to 
calculate the value of tt 11 in fourteen minutes. 

August Imholtz then took the lectern for a look at 
what most of us know Warren Weaver for - translation - in 
a talk entitled "Warren and the Pirates" for reasons which 
may become clear later. Weaver's book Alice in Many 
Tongues, published in 1 964 by the University of Wisconsin 
Press, has become "a classic work on a classic book". The 
genesis of the book can be traced back to a letter Weaver 
wrote in January, 1 96 1 , to a gentleman in Kenya stating "I 
have agreed to read a paper, in March, before the Rowfant 
Club in Cleveland (one of the very good literary clubs of 
this country) on some aspect of AW. And I have decided to 

use the title 'Alice in the Tower of Babel'." 

The book begins with three chapters introducing 
the idea of the "universal child"; a biography of CLD; and 
the history of AW. It then discusses the early translations in 
CLD's lifetime (and CLD's views on the subject), examines 
the dilemmas of translation (and specifically why this book 
is so problematic), and ends with a table of 42 (!) languages. 

Weaver illustrated the difficulties by performing 
an experiment: he took a dozen translations of a passage 
from the Mad Tea Party (containing "one parodied verse, 
three puns, one invented word, one logical joke, and eight 
instances of what he called 'twists'"), sent them to native 
speakers who had a perfect command of English, and asked 
them to translate it back without, of course, consulting the 
original. (An analogy was made to the way Dodgson derived 
his famous pseudonym by translating his name into Latin 
and back.) 

Imholtz illustrated this with the double-translation 
from the Swahili, translated originally by Sister Ermyntrude, 
and read from her correspondence with Weaver. August 
presented the results of an informal survey he did of some 
present-day collectors and found that today Alice exists in 
at least twice, perhaps thrice, as many, languages as Weaver's 
42 count, depending on how one defines "language" (do 
dialects count? Gregg shorthand?), "translation" (do 
abridgements or retellings count?) and so on. 

He explained the title of his talk - a reference to 
Milt Caniff s "Terry and the Pirates" comic strip (Warren 
Weaver, inveterate traveler, making the world safe for 
democracy in his work with the Rockefeller foundation); 
also pirates often "melt down and recast their booty", a good 
metaphor for the work of the translator; and the thrill 
collectors share with buccaneers in finding treasure. 

August then attempted to read an excerpt in Swahili 
("Popo pop unang aje/Niabie wafanyaje?" - "Twinkle, 
Twinkle, little bat"), as Charlie did in Pidgin. Fortunately 
no native speakers of either were present. 

William Jay Smith, Sandor Burstein, Byron Sewell 

A keepsake entitled Warren Weaver: Scientist, 
Humanitarian, Carrollian; With a Bibliography of the 
Lewis Carroll Publications of Warren Weaver, edited by 
Charlie Lovett, and containing the essences of these three 
talks, was also distributed to those in attendance. 

William Jay Smith, now eighty-two, published his 
first book of poems in 1947, inaugurating a long and disting- 
uished career producing more than fifty books of poetry, 
children's verse, translations, essays, criticism, anthologies 
and memoirs. He has taught at both Williams and Hollins, 
has served from 1968 to 1970 as Consultant in Poetry to 
the Library of Congress (a post now called Poet Laureate), 
and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. 
As a student at Washington University, Smith was a founder 
of a Poetry Society (along with his friend Tom, later known 
to the world as "Tennessee", Williams) and earned both a 
bachelor's and a master's degree in French literature. 

It was altogether fitting that Mr. Smith was a bene- 
ficiary of the Stan Marx Memorial lectureship, as Stan, one 
of our founders and our first President, was a dear friend of 
his. Smith's sub- 
ject was "Lewis 
Carroll as Poet: 
Dream and Night- 

He began 
with Carroll's boy- 
hood dream to 
"wander through/ 
the wide world/and 
chase the buffalo." 
The buffalo was an 
exotic beast back 
then, full of Wild 
West associations, 
and became em- 
blematic for the 
young Charles, as 
he ventured out on 
his lifelong quest. 


believes Carroll's serious and sentimental poems often ought 
to be consigned to oblivion; his example was '"Tis Love" 
from Sylvie and Bruno, a genre of Carroll's poetry which 
he found "particularly distressing and eminently 
forgettable". On the other hand were the "iridescent gems" 
of his nonsense and parodies. Smith read to us, and 
commented on, portions of "Father William", of which he 
said "the entire poem is a somersault" - the inversion of 
reality, the father/child reversal and the acrobatic clown of 
the title; "Jabberwocky", a poem of transformation (with a 
father/son reversal); and the "Snark", a satire of the Anglo- 
Saxon heroic sagas, again in which a father becomes a 
"burbling babe" and in which Carroll opened an existential 
door to life's essential meaninglessness. Smith mentioned 
the poem's "apian heritage" (all those "B"s) and then 
discussed "The Aged, Aged Man" with its reappearance of 
the buffalo. 

Smith noted that Wordsworth, in his poem 
"Resolution and Independence" (1807) which was the basis 
of that satire, contains the lines "We Poets in our youth 
begin in gladness ;/But thereof come in the end despondency 

and madness." His conclusion? "Nonsense kept him sane." 
We were then treated, by popular request, to 
Smith's lively reading of some of his own charmingly 
nonsensical works, including "Pidgin Pinch" and other 
selections from his books Around My Room and Laughing 

A few hours later, our hosts for a fabulous dinner 
and shmoozefest were Alison and Alan Tannenbaum. Young 
Charles Dodgson need search no more: a gargantuan 
stuffed buffalo head dominated the Tannenbaum 's Texas- 
sized living room! Dozens of little stuffed critters were 
everywhere one put one's feet (Alison is an amateur taxi- 
dermist), lending a properly surreal air. We were given plenty 
of opportunity to view Alan's extensive collection (one of 
the highlights of which was a Williams "Wonderland" pinball 


a delicious 
dinner of Ali- 
food and won- 
derful conver- 
sation, guests 
were present- 
ed with oy- 
with little feet 
glued on, and 
coasters ad- 
v e r t i s i n g 
Irish stout. 
Then Selwyn 
Goodacre was 
most amusing 
in his brief 

talk. He spoke of the abysmal poverty of his memory, in 
fact once failing to recognize his own daughter when she 
came to the door having recently had her hair cut. 
Nonetheless, he was immediately able to identify the 
previously unknown (but theorized) sixth variant of the 
rejected "Sixty Thousand" People's Edition in Alan's 
collection. We collectors certainly applaud his sense of 
priority, and thus inspired, rode off into the Texan sunset. 

/. Lewis Carroll at Texas, Carroll Studies #8, published by the 
HRC in 1 985 and distributed by the LCSNA is a catalog of their 
materials, and includes Warren Weaver's essay "In Pursuit of 
Lewis Carroll" 

2. The UTA Longhorns "stomped" the hapless Baylor Bears (of 
Waco) 48-14 

3. Visit them virtually at 

4. Vol. 98 No. 5, 1 5 October 1 954 

Well, You Know, ... 

Martin Gardner writes: 

James B. Hobbs, professor emeritus of business 
administration and associate dean emeritus of the College 
of Arts and Sciences at Lehigh University in Bethlehem PA, 
recently called my attention to an aspect of both Alice books 
that I had not noticed before. He was struck by the unusual 
frequency with which Alice and 23 other of her compan- 
ions needlessly interject "you know" into their conversa- 

In recent years, the use of "you know" in the United 
States has become a compulsion among many young people, 
athletes, talk-show hosts and their guests. In some cases, it 
seems impossible for them to utter a sentence without in- 
terjecting "you know". Although unlikely that American 
children picked up the habit merely from reading the Alice 
duad, the question arises: Was this a common practice of 
dialogue in Carroll's day? Or might another explanation 

First the facts; then two conjectures. Alice need- 
lessly interjects "you know" 3 1 times in the two volumes. 
(The twenty times the phrase was used as a question or as a 
declarative statement are excluded.) The phrase is used a 
total of 86 times in the two books: five times each by the 
White Knight, Humpty Dumpty, and the Red Queen, and four 
times by the White Queen. Nineteen other characters use 
the phase between one and three times. After being con- 
fronted with so many "you knows", it was most gratifying 
to observe the Caterpillar's retort in Wonderland to Alice 
bemoaning her changing size so often, "you know": "I don 't 

Hobbs also tabulated the frequency that "you see" 
is used by Alice and her companions in the two volumes. 
Although Alice uses this phrase only twice - once in con- 
versation, again with Caterpillar, where he says: "I don't see!" 
- the White Knight uses it eight times, the narrator seven, 
and seven other characters once or twice. Total "you see" 
interjections is 26. A third phrase, "of course", is used 35 
times: six by Mock Turtle, four by Humpty Dumpty, and 
between once and three times by 15 other characters (in- 
cluding Alice thrice). 

Two conjectures arise as to why Carroll interjected 
these three phrases so frequently. One: such phrases might 
have been the norm in talking with or between small chil- 
dren, particularly little girls, during the middle and late 19th 
centuries. Two: (and Hobbs suggests the more plausible) 
Carroll (or C.L.Dodgson) was a teacher/professor and a 
logician/mathematician. Instructors frequently use "you 
know" and "you see" to clarify (hopefully or in fact) the 
point under discussion. And it is also not uncommon to 
emphasize a point (whether complex or "simple") with an 
"of course" thrown in. To boot, bred into the logician/math- 
ematician is the discipline to develop detailed proofs for 
theorems and constructs, which are often terminated with 
the super-flourish: "obviously such and so is the conclu- 
sion or insight!" Nary an "obvious" appears in either tome, 
suggesting that Carroll may have replaced a natural (or 

trained) tendency to use the word with the less harsh and 
intimidating "you know", ct you see" or "of course". 

I would greatly appreciate learning if the frequency 
of these three phrases has been noticed by other Carroll 
scholars, and if so, their thoughts on the matter. 

[There was also a chart tabulating the characters and the 
occurrences of these phrases. 

An eMail forwarded to Edmund Weiner, the Principal 
Philologist ofOED, inquiring about the correct rhetorical 
term for unwarranted interjections received this reply: 

"I think the traditional word is 'expletive ', defined by 
OED as 'serving merely to fill out a sentence, help out a 
metrical line, etc. ' I think that in modern grammar a more 
accurate term is 'filler ', defined by the Oxford Dictionary 
of English Grammar as 'A word, usually outside the syntax 
of an adjoining clause, that serves to fill what might 
otherwise be an unwanted pause in conversation. ' 
Another term for this is 'pragmatic particle '. "] 

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Addenda, Errata, and IHuminata 

The article entitled "Hidden Treasure" in AX 64, p. 18 took 
as its source some of the earliest dispatches regarding the 
discovery of Carroll's last letters. A sentence read, in part, 
"The final letter... with which he sent a plum cake..." was 
corrected in later reports to "...with which Dodgson 
enclosed a copy of The Lost Plum Cake, a children's book 
written by his niece E.G. Wilcox." 


What is the meaning and relevance of this poem? 

Un petit d'un petit 
S'etonne aux Halles 
Un petit d'un petit 
Ah! Degres te fallent 
Indolent qui ne sort cesse 
Indolent qui ne se mene 
Qu'importe un petit d'un petit 
Tout Gai de Reguennes. 

Hint: fluency in French is not necessary; in fact a positive 
handicap. Answer on p. 18. 

Poet Stephanie Bolster: Alice After Alice 

Chloe Nichols 

"Imagine her this way, imagine her that way: these 
portraits allow Alice to change, to step outside the 
frame of Wonderland... " - Sue Sinclair 

"...this curious cbil4 W3S very fond of pretending 
to be two people." 

I. "Alice - Poet" 

When I was younger - much - it was trendy to have 
several actors play the same role in Shakespeare, 
simultaneously. They stood for different dimensions of the 
character - son, lover, sidekick, and so on. You had choral 
soliloquies. Stage doors widened; Othello doubled or tripled 
as his own honor guard. It got so you couldn't tell an intimate 
death scene from a battlefield. Yet, somehow, either in spite 
of the inevitable chaos - or because of it - the real Hamlet 
did truly occur. Coalesce. 

In the same way, in the work of a young Canadian 
poet, Stephanie Bolster, Alice Liddell also materializes by 
multiplication, though with much less ado. Maybe that 
happens because poetry's stage is naturally larger than 
drama's; or maybe it's because this particular poet, even so 
early in her career, already has what it takes to make the 
difficult look easy. 

Now, I only recently stumbled (by good fortune 
and the suggestion of friends, among them Ian Lancashire) 
across Stephanie Bolster. She had published White Stone, a 
collection about Alice, in 1998, and is now Assistant 
Professor of Creative Writing at Concordia University in 
Montreal. Very graciously, Bolster agreed to an e-mail 
interview for the Knight Letter. 

"She cannot move unless her double move" [sic] - 
a line about Alice by Allen Tate reminded me of the 
ambiguity in her - this ordinary/extraordinary child: is she 
adrift or detached? intrepid or implacable? Carroll suggests 
the divisions are deliberate, even antagonistic: "trying to 
box her own ears... this curious child was very fond of 
pretending to be two people." In Stephanie Bolster's work, 
I saw at once a way to touch and move, even manipulate, 
Alice, for Bolster, far from leaving her in Wonderland, 
locates her at many times and places - in the major moments 
of Alice's own real-life; in the poet's personal epiphanies; 
or set against characters real or fictional, and separate from 
either of them. In one poem she even becomes "The Poet as 
Nine Portraits of Alice". 

Just as astonishing as finding Alice so variously 
staged was Bolster's unintrusive accuracy. Here was 
someone approaching the "curious child" with almost 
pediatric thoroughness - someone kind, undivided; no ear- 
boxer here - whom I could like, and someone who did like 
Alice - her friend but not her follower. All of this marks 
Bolster's first book, White Stone. Carroll fans will 
recognize in that name the classical watchword Charles 
Dodgson used in his diary to record his favorite days. I was 
impressed with Bolster's instinctive honesty. 

Some general criticism of Bolster's work is 

available, and she has other publications, among them a brief 
portfolio of poems about paintings, A Tent of Skin, for the 
Canadian National Gallery. In 1999 she published a second 
book, Two Bowls of Milk. Bolster has a pretty and convenient 
site on the Internet, copyrighted to the University of Toronto 
write.htm). There you can find a brief vita, a discussion by 
the poet, and some criticism. A few of her most frequently 
discussed poems are linked to that site. White Stone is 
published by Veliicule Press, and the homepage gives the 
address. Her critics tend to study either the poet herself or 
her individual poems - overlooking, in my view, valuable 
questions about craft and technique, the questions Bolster 
asks herself. For this poet, more than most, is drawn through 
her own material to examine her intention, so the unifying 
interplay of that work is important. "By placing Alice within 
my own place and time, I was able to see that here and now 
were every bit as rich, nonsensical and distressing as both 
Wonderland and Victorian England." She goes on, 
"Increasingly, I wrote about 'the real Alice', whose life, as I 
grew up through writing about her, seemed far more 
fascinating than the life of a child in an imaginary world." 

The entire collection of her poems seems designed 
to form one organic whole. Thoughtfully specific poem 
titles and the highly organized table of contents carefully 
guide the reader through a consistent whole. Every poem 
becomes both text and context - it is a remarkable 
achievement and proof of her inclusiveness. The title is 
White Stone, not White Stones. Still, the homepage is 
excellent for showing at a glance the breadth of her subject 
matter and approach, and her easy, even-handed precision. 
Her style is spare, exact, reaching, and lightly laced with 
wit. Carroll would have liked it. 

Since Bolster's star is still new, it may be natural 
that published criticism is sadly uneven, and can even be 
dismissive and patronizing. Time Magazine's Katherine 
Govier, cataloging Canadian poets, identifies Bolster as 
dispassionate, bloodless, with a "maidenly archness" - "a 
cool, academic poet. . . seeking inspiration in things as they 
strike her eye." Bolster's "great refinement" is finally too 
"ethereal" to satisfy. My guess is that Govier, working only 
with the nine poems of A Tent of Skin, has overlooked the 
layered unity of the Alice-centered writing. For, although 
Bolster had already taken important prizes before its 
publication, White Stone brought her highest acclaim and 
the most noteworthy honor to date, the Canadian Governor 
General's Award in 1998. Critic Douglas Barbour praises a 
"documented" approach which both remains true to Alice's 
biography and "introject(s) the writer". Sue Sinclair calls 
the collection "multi-layered, multi-textured," and the true 
Alice "essentially elusive". The link, in her view, is 
loneliness; Alice's own connects to the "loneliness that 
seems to belong to the poet" and results in a "particular and 
specific relationship to the Alices." 

Bolster is not alone in this feeling. 

Alice Pleasance Liddell Hargreaves - child, 
woman, symbol, myth - continues to attract serious writers 

and illustrators in surprising numbers. Even the initial 
popularity of Alice inspired a rage of children's works of 
outright imitation and parody, some so crammed with morals 
that the Duchess might have written them. Alongside Alice's 
first conquest, Charles Dodgson, modern creators treating 
her include Lewis Padgett, Joyce Carol Oates, poet Allen 
Tate, filmmakers Dennis Potter and Jan Svankmajer. 

Bolster sees in her many Alices a network of paths 

- into Wonderland, Victorian England, contemporary 
society, Greek myth - and as well, into herself, her art. Alice 
has been a focusing lens. She is "very multiple for me: 
grandmother, mother, sister, child, friend - she is the women 
in my life, real and imagined." Yet, although White Stone is 
only a couple of years old, Bolster also calls her journey 
complete, "She is still alive for me, but her heart, unknown 
to me, is absent." It is a little as if Dante had discharged 
Beatrice before finishing the tour of heaven. Of all the 
volume's surprises, this is the strangest, for her break with 
Alice is more announced than explained: "She is / nowhere. . . 
Who did I dream I'd find?" Bolster implies (to me it seems) 
that she simply passed through Alice like a train corridor, 
glancing out windows. And nothing in the book's closing, 
breaking-off poems, suggests that the Alice who had 
fascinated her from childhood initiated the rift. 

Alice's boldness first attracted Bolster. Her own 
childhood was timid: "In Grade One I weep myself/ waist- 
deep in tears." She shares Alice's girlhood more 
convincingly than her years of marriage and motherhood - 
natural, in a young woman. At every point, though, Bolster 
lets Alice set the pace for both of them. When Alice is old, 
Bolster is old. When Alice lands in a modern kitchen like a 
flattened parcel, Bolster mothers her with Canadian muffins. 
Yet, ironically, there is also a sense of danger - a barbarian 
waif turned vandal, impossible to tame. Along with a sense 
of bonding - "I felt temperamentally connected to Alice" - 
there is also a trace of mutual captivity, "I've been wedged a 
long time in the sad narrows / between her and me." Could 
Alice have been fighting free? In time, the poet seems to 
have realized, "I was really writing my own Alice." Whatever 
Alice has brought to Bolster, she has not entirely blessed 

Although the poet spent years researching the real- 
life Alice, she may be at her best when she gives up the 
documentary approach, and introduces Alice into strange 
company. "Portrait of Alice with Elvis" makes lovers of two 
lonely idols with only their fame in common. Their bi- 
cultural castle is also their prison: "In sleep / their tear- 
blotched faces could be anyone's." Bolster thinks this 
poem's fame has grown out of proportion; she could be right. 
Graceland and Wonderland don't speak the same language 

- not enough of it. Elvis and Alice may be too vulnerable 
for each other. A better match, I believe, is achieved in 
"Portrait of Alice with Christopher Robin". In a snowy 
Hundred Aker Wood, Christopher Robin and Alice, naked, 
share intimacy beside a fire, pointing to "figures in the smoke 

- / lumpen bear, white rabbit". This friendship clicks, and 
the couple become gently appealing in each other's arms. 

II. "Poet - Don" 

The nearer to Alice, the farther from Carroll. 

Although she touches only lightly on Dodgson's 
assumed infatuation - "Spring everywhere threatening to 
open them both: tense in that unfurling garden, during the 
long exposure" - Bolster gives him no lover's warmth; she 
seems most comfortable with Alice when she has loosened 
his grip, blurred his focus. As Sue Sinclair says, the poet 
wants to "step outside the frame of Wonderland"; to do this, 
she must block Carroll's possessiveness. It does not help 
for Alice to be so - apparently - docile. 

Indeed, few also-real characters in literature 
respond to their author's bidding as willingly as Alice Liddell 
drops into the world of Lewis Carroll - while also leaving a 
dossier of a real-world life. Although the title White Stone 
locates the book by implication in Dodgson's diary 
shorthand for good fortune, the poet keeps their connection 
carefully low-key. Bolster does not linger long in Alice's 
deanery-garden childhood below Carroll's window. She 
hurries her adolescence, even announces her first period, 
possibly because Carroll cannot follow her across that 
threshold. White Stone may be, under its many versions of 
Alice's life, a catalog of adolescent potential as she 
physically matures - like "an English Landscape" or the 
Caterpillar's chrysalis, or as a challenge to Victoria. In fact, 
teenage themes overshadow those of maturity. For Bolster, 
Alice is the girl at once exploring herself and rejecting 
maturity, uncomfortable in her own body. As the mouse- 
swimmer, "she cannot sleep for the hiss of her breath / and 
for who she'll become." 

Bolster, who knows Alice as well as any other artist 
since her storyteller, also seems to share with Carroll the 
will to possess the dreamchild. Taking up Alice most 
seriously at the age when Carroll put her down, she pursues 
her with equal fervor, and afterward, again with parallel 
emotions, also to put her down. Alice takes on the handled 
look of a communal nursery doll. She faded into a sort of 
"pen-pal to whom I was very close as an adolescent and young 
adult; we haven't corresponded for years . . . but the bond . . . 
(still defines) who I am." Two artists share one pattern: initial 
enthusiasm, pursuit, devotion, a sudden, implicit kind of no- 
fault divorce, followed quickly by a sort of nostalgia close 
to indifference, gladly embraced. The trappings get in the 
way, and Bolster never really accepts Alice's presence as 
wholeheartedly as she accepts her absence. Carroll only 
bonds with her in flashback, the scene on the Isis. Both are 
careful to declare it. Alice seems to divert people - fictional 
or not - out of their present, and into her past or future. 
Elusive, she even slides out of Tenniel's hands, leaving him 
to pose a substitute model no more like her than Thumbkin 
is like Ring Man.* 

Bolster could only have withdrawn from Alice for 
one of two reasons: either one outgrew the other, or one 
broke off with the other. Given that Bolster quite openly 
takes the entire range of Alice's life past infancy as her 
subject, it ought to the be the second; and given that Bolster's 
first impulse as a poet is to (very lightly) embrace and (very 

delicately) explore, I put the blame on Alice. Consider: 
Alice's only known intimate is a cat. Alice has no 
companions, no confidences, no cozy chats. Her 
conversations are no more intimate than mutual cross- 
examination. Most she breaks off herself. As her own 
double, she boxes her own ears. The Alice which Carroll 
created is a loner, an abandoner, always on the move. Her 
only panic in either book occurs in the White Rabbit's 
dressing room, where she cannot move at all. Although she 
leaves the impression that she has been deserted, she does 
all the deserting. It may be Alice's habit of emotional 
vanishing that the Cheshire Cat represents and even the 
White Knight's affection cannot overcome. Though 
Stephanie Bolster, like Carroll, also creates fictions to catch 
her heroine, in the end she too finds that Alice has vanished. 

III. "Alice - Alice" 

"One of my deepest fears is of being watched 
from a perspective exactly like my own, by 
someone who 'sees through me'... " — Bolster 

Though Wonderland's fantasy inspires some of her 
best work, Bolster prefers Alice consistently real, from 
romantic girlhood - when, as a poem shows, she may have 
been linked with a prince - to a womanhood of lackluster 
respectability. Though working at Alice's elbow and often 
with her own key emotions, the poet still manages never to 
intrude or pose her subject. However, she does take great 
liberties with Alice's backdrops - childbed, marriage bed, 
Dodgson's funeral. She is looking for a path out of herself. 
"I wanted to write about someone other than myself. . . my 
own inner life wasn't sufficiently valid material ... the kind 
of material I wanted to publish ... I saw (in Carroll's Alice) 
a spunky young girl who knew her mind and spoke it." 
Eventually Alice came to be all of "the women in my life, 
real or imagined. . . the historical Alice is the restrained part 
of myself, the part that wants to do the right thing." Bolster 
seems, then, to have used Alice as a mirror to groom her 
own possible selves, and she seems most convincing where 
experiences are more likely shared. Her childbed poem - 
"three sons churned like butter in your guts" - has its 
unconvincing moments. 

If Bolster's true Alice moves away from her, her 
pictures remain like wallet-size snapshots. The photography 
binding Alice to Bolster and Carroll is one of White Stone's 
major themes. Carroll appears as his own subject; young 
Alice glowers into Carroll's camera; Bolster poses / is posed 
through several rites of passage. Briefly, the poet shows 
Carroll groping (maybe) the child with chemical-stained 
hands, and in more detail, places herself and Alice together 
in his darkroom developing the famous "beggar child" 
picture, where he does not "unlatch her collar", yet finally 
dunks Bolster in emulsifiers. Julia Margaret Cameron's 
photographs, which first gave Bolster a sense of the real 
Alice, present an unraveling matron, her hair "brittle / as 
last year's nests". The camera also becomes Alice's trap: 
"Today the shutter's snapped you in." Gradually, though, 
Carroll the manipulator fades as Bolster's own authority 

grows stronger, the camera hides more than it shows, and 
finally eradicates an Alice she has joined in old age: "(M)y 
aged / mind elsewhere, I leave the lens cap on: aim at you 
and photograph a blackness absolute." 

The photography motif also points up two strengths 
surprising in a first book, Bolster's unity-in-flexibility, and 
her assured management of her speaking self. Commonly, 
she speaks directly to Alice, though on the other hand, she 
can become Alice and claim her central position. I said 
earlier - one of the fascinations of White Stone is its ready 
switches, subject to object, text to context. The necessary 
space between photographer and subject also allows a 
discreet control while screening subject from intrusion. Yet 
it is not clear whether Bolster realizes that however well 
manipulated, Alice may have taken charge, a presence 
outside acute fabrications, and that picture-taking allows 
control to flow in two directions. Carroll's famous "beggar 
child" picture suggests a covert, seductive control. Which 
is mistress? 

Another striking facet of her book of poems is the 
gradual move from photographs to portraits, both of which 
are Bolster's specialties. Early in the book photographs are 
a major motif; later she gradually switches to portraits which 
seem to have been painted, and which include richer and 
richer detail, much from the extra-Alice, un-Alice natural 
world: Canadian beaches and lakes are suggested, stones 
throw interesting shadows. Toward the end of the book Alice 
herself has fits of shrinking and disappearing - a face on a 
milk carton, a mouse in the refrigerator. Finally, ending the 
picture-within-picture approach of photos and portraits, 
Bolster breaks off her scrutiny of Alice as Wonderland did 

- by enlarging her. Alice becomes her own universe, 
complete with stars. "This big, you can't be photographed." 

After White Stone, Stephanie Bolster's work has 
taken a decided turn toward the textural, the here-and-now. 
Her work has put on a little weight, all muscle. Her pictures 
have become glimpses, and sparseness has relaxed into the 
richly commonplace: blackberry picking, sucking milk-wet 
fingers. No single image has risen to rivet her imagination 

- who could replace Alice? - but the world she writes in 
seems far more burgeoning, friendlier, less wary. This is 
the world of her second book, Two Bowls of Milk. 

The last two poems of White Stone tell Alice 
goodbye. "Portrait of Alice as Her Own Universe" says "Of 
the advantages to death and myth, / this you have most 
deserved: space." And finally, turning Alice into a black hole, 
"Implode. In the black funnels / you will find all your 
variation." In the end Bolster realizes it might not have been 
Alice after all: "I let her history fall shut... Victoria's dead, 
this isn't England, and Alice was never . . . that woman's face, 
looming in my dark room." 

The question is: if it wasn't Alice, who was it? In 
all seriousness, Alice must be the queen of mistaken 
identity. Part of her leaves her own story, grows up, has 
adventures, grows and grows, invades films, fascinates poets, 
painters, people on the hunt for meaning - yet she also 
remains the little girl just stumbling into the rabbit hole. I 


think the answer is that, in any form, she is only Lewis 
Carroll's creation - more accurately, a part of his creation. 
She is a living mirror, giving back all our images. Alice with 
her cool logic is a single rational alien always on the move 
through our unreasonable menagerie. Wonderland's 
opposite, she can reflect it but can never release its terrible 
tensions. Bolster, who is "drawn to borders, to edges where 
reality transforms," found in Alice a balance point between 
mind and blankness where her poetic vision could 
materialize; but not take root. 

The final truth of Alice is that she and Wonderland 
mutually repel. Carroll found that he could not combine his 
two worlds - the irrational chaos, the clear child-mind. As 
Bolster sees it, the real Alice also found this impossible. 
"The Alice we know, and the Alice I wrote about, is multiple, 
and yet, ultimately, a vacuum. She is the 'white stone' of the 
book title - undeniably present, but opaque, 
indecipherable. . . she's a kind of black hole, or a white hole. . . 
absent, and replaced by a made thing. . . The Alice that comes 
down to us is the Alice of our own making." 

Late in White Stone, Bolster trades in the trapped 
dreamchild for an ordinary woman. The final poems are less 
mythic, more naturally textured. "Alice Lake" centers on a 
woman swimming rain-soaked among "anonymous plants, 
tentative and skeletal, rising from the water." Considering 
Bolster's at that time rather austere sparseness, even this 
touch of nature amounts to a lavish excursion. She seeks a 
new solidity. "The stone lays its shape / down with such 
assurance / you could weep." Interestingly, it is Nature more 
than Alice which seems, at the end, to divide Bolster from 
Alice and reunite her with herself, "The woman (of Alice 
Lake) is only a pair of arms reaching the other shore and I 
am a pair of eyes touching only their own lids and this rain." 
Only as Alice (the swimmer) recedes, can the poet come to 
terms with her own nature. 

Thus this prize-winning and striking first book 
becomes a collection of possible / possibly-counterfeit, 
Alices, which finally draw together into a whole woman, 
who promptly takes her leave. Bolster goes from seeking 
to inventing to releasing Alice, and much of her achievement 
is the knowing touch which allows her to explore her subject 
throughout all these phases, all without trespassing - 
"unlatching her collar". The development of this unintruding 
scrutiny is the most interesting quality of White Stone. 

I never did find Alice; I stopped looking. Yet Bolster 
provided my key, not as much in her attachment (as I hoped) 
as in its painless breaking-off. That identified the one 
function of all the Alices - as a kind of gamepiece channeling 
attention by eluding it. The reality/fantasy game works only 
because Alice is always between moves. It's a tired old 
phrase, but Bolster simply outgrew Alice: "her heart, 
unknown to me, is absent." 




"My two nieces are very cute, five and three... 
Those are their names." 

~ guest Bill Braudis on 
"Late Night with Conan O'Brien" 


Harold Bloom, in discussing Oscar Wilde's The 
Importance of Being Earnest, states that its "...true 
affinities are with Lewis Carroll and with Gilbert and 
Sullivan..." and suggests that the play "is best read in 
close conjunction with the Alice books." He 
concludes his essay with the statement, "If there is an 
afterlife, and people go on reading in it... I would 
want to hear Shakespeare reading aloud from 
Through the Looking-Glass. 

How to Read and Why 
(Scribner, 2000) 


Hypostasization: The variety of reification that 
results from supposing that whatever can be named 
or conceived abstractly must actually exist. When (in 
Through the Looking-Glass), his Messenger 
declares "I'm sure nobody walks much faster than I 
do," the White King hypostasizes "Nobody" by 
responding that "He can't do that, or else he'd have 
been here first." Such philosophers as Plato, Hegel 
and Heidegger are sometimes accused of similar 
flights of ontological whimsy. 

~ Garth Kemerling 

Philosophical Dictionary 


The multitude of the media's quotations from, and 
references to, Carroll in the recent Bush/Gore 
"sustained election" Florida farce were far beyond 
measure; the most appropriate was from Chapter IX 
of Looking-Glass: 

'And you do Addition'' the White Queen asked- 
'What's one and one and one and one and one and 
one and one and one and one and one?' 

'I don't know,' said Alice. 'I lost count.' 

* Thumbkin and Ring Man are the names of the thumb and the 
ring finger in a children' s rhyme set to the tune of"Frere 
Jacques". - ed. 


Leaves from the Deanery Garden 

Dear Mr. Carroll, 

Hello. My name is Alex. I am 9 years old. I like adventure 
and war books. I read a lot and had never read Alice in 
Wonderland until my class read it and I will never read it 
again in my whole life. 

No offense, but I hated that book. You must be a very nice 
man because I've heard some of your letters. But you need 
a bit of spice in your book. It is just too plain for me. You 
need to have more adventure in your stories. Say instead of 
this: "She took the Orange Marmalade. It was empty. She 
put it down." It should be like this: "She's flying down the 
hole at breaknecking speed and she goes through the floor 
of the hole and hits a wild kind of spring and goes flying 
into the sky." That is what I think is descriptive. 

But you have some good artists. I've 
got to give you credit for that. My 
favorites are Anthony Browne, 
Angel Dominiquez, and Helen 
Oxenbury. Everyone in my class 
except me likes your book. We are 
all going to do illustrations for your 
book. I really look forward to doing 
this because I like drawing. 

Good bye and don't forget, I don't 
like your book. 



[The above is a letter from an 
activity Monica Edinger uses in a 
unit, based on AW, which she 
teaches at The Dalton School in 
New York, and is in her book/CD 
Seeking History: Teaching with 
Primary Sources in Grades 4-6 
(Heinemann, 2000), 0-325-00265- 
7, $22 - order from] 

May I share some thoughts regarding our [opera in progress] 
"Alice", and our including the character of Lewis Carroll, 
playing not only himself, but both the White Knight 
(obviously) in Act Two, and the Gryphon (less obviously) 
in Act One? 

Did you ever wonder about the author's spelling of the word 
"gryphon?" When the adequate spelling would normally be 
"griffin", this strange choice stimulated my curiosity. 
Without having the Annotated Alice of Gardner to check, I 
looked elsewhere to a source from 1894. What reference 
might Dodgson/Carroll have had in his mind to employ this 
spelling? This citation is from Brewer's The Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable (p.558): 

"Gryphon (in Orlando Furioso,), son ofOlivero and 
Sigismunda, brother of Aquilant, in love with 
Origilla, who plays him false. He was called White 
from his armour, and his brother Black. He 
overthrew the eight champions of Damascus in the 
tournament given to celebrate the king 's wedding- 
day. While asleep Martano steals his armour, and 
goes to the King Noradino to receive the meed of 
high deeds. In the meantime Gryphon awakes, finds 
his armour gone, is obliged to put on Martano 's, 
and, being mistaken for the coward, is hooted and 
hustled by the crowd. He lays about stoutly, and 
kills many. The king comes up, finds out the mistake, 
and offers his hand, which Gryphon, like a true 
knight, receives. He joined the army of 
Charlemagne. " 

Brewer also cites a 
spelling of "griffon" (as 
well as alternatives, 
"griffen" or "griffin") for 
the offspring of the lion 
and the eagle. The creature 
""kept guard over hidden 

So there may have been, 
with the awareness that 
Dodgson/Carroll was so 
well versed in things 
folkloric and English and 
mythic, some double 
entendre in the employ- 
ment of the spelling, for 
Gryphon also more than 
hints of the White Knight, 
as above. This character 
may symbolize therefore 
Carroll in another White 
Knight's guise, all the while 
valorously guarding 
"hidden" treasure. 

Notice in Orlando Furioso that his love "plays him false," 
as did all the children in whom Carroll invested himself, by 
their growing into adulthood. "Who are you, Alice?" as he 
wrote, may have been much more of a query than we have 
come to think. 

If this is mere circumstance between a Gryphon and White 
Knight, then I am impressed in the serendipities of life, and 
if it is his intended reference, then I am impressed again 
and again with the intellectual connections that seemed to 
rule his imagination and art. Either way, it is most interesting, 
don't you think? 

Gary Bachlund 


[Gryphon derives from the Greek ypik|j, whose adjectival 
form yptJiTos means "curved, especially in the nose or 
beak", hence ypv-ndtrds (used in Aristophanes), a kind 
of griffin] 

I was surprised to see in your excellent Fall 2000 issue that 
John Tufail continues to think that Tenniel did not draw the 
Knave of Hearts in his frontispiece to AW, and on an inside 
illustration. Those little clubs on the Knave are traditional 
decorations on the Jack of Heart's tunic as he appears on 
English and American playing cards (enclosed). They ap- 
pear only on the Jack of Hearts, so there is no question that 
Tenniel was drawing the Knave of Hearts. I suspect that what 
seem to be little clubs are intended to be clover. I sent a 
note on this to Bandersnatch. 

Martin Gardner 

Gardner's note was printed in Bandersnatch 108, along 
with comments by others. Dr. Tufail responded in 109. 

Having just finished KL 64, I congratulate you for a mag- 
nificent production. Your recent issues have been splendid. 

However, as an old curmudgeon whose history includes for- 
mal training in psychology, psychiatry, thanatology, logic 
and literature, I cannot refrain from believing that Dr. Chloe 
Nichols' "Goldfish, Death and the Maiden" is tilting at wind- 
mills. Dr. Tufail's essay in the same issue, "Language and 
Truth in AW repeats many of the same formalistic errors. 
One wonders if there will ever be an end to psychologists' 
efforts to juggle facts to fit preconceived theories? 

In contrast, Jonathan Dixon's "Dodgson's Adventures in 
Therapy" that follows takes observable facts, fits them into 
a theory and then tests it. His paper is therefore to be highly 

I suppose that we must accept the ridiculous along with the 
sublime in the guises of fairness or comprehensiveness. To 
publish pseudo-science or voodoo philosophies seems ter- 
ribly wasteful. 

Sandor Burstein 

President emeritus, L.C.S.N.A. 

i work for a small radio station and we are doing a repot 
about Louis Carroll, but i need to know, hoe "Lutwidge" is 
correctly pronounced! Can you help me? 

Rahmun (via eMail) 

My word. Where to begin? 

An Exchange 

To: Writers & Research Group, "Jeopardy!" 

On the show which aired last Friday, 1 5 September, in the 
category "Brit Lit" there was a question: "Referring to his 
'Alice' books, this author said Tm afraid I didn't mean any- 
thing but nonsense."' The given answer was Lewis Carroll, 
but unfortunately the "question" was not correct. The quoted 
line was not referring to his Alice books, but rather to his 
great nonsense poem "The Hunting of the Snark" (1876). 

The well-known line is from an letter dated 1 8 August 1884 
and addressed to Miss Rachel Lowrie (and her siblings). 
You will find it printed in The Letters of Lewis Carroll, ed. 
Morton Cohen and Roger Lancelyn Green, Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1979, vol. I pp. 547 - 9. The exact line is "As to 
the meaning of the Snark? I'm very much afraid I didn't 
mean anything but nonsense!" 

As you can imagine, I am a faithful watcher and admirer of 
your show! 


Mark Burstein 
V.P., L.C.S.N.A. 

Dear Mr. Burstein, 

Thank you for your information about Lewis Carroll's 
quotation... We especially appreciate the primary documen- 
tation that shows Carroll referring to "The Hunting of the 
Snark" rather than to the Alice books, as we had stated on 
the air. As we prepare roughly fifteen thousand clues a year, 
we naturally have to rely on secondary sources, which in 
this case led us astray. Next time we run into a Carroll-re- 
lated conundrum, rest assured that we will call on your ex- 
pertise beforehand. 

We hope you will continue to watch the show. 


The Jeopardy! Writing Staff 


Dodgson, Docherty and MacDonald's Lilith 
Karoline Leach 

It has been pointed out by others that there are con- 
nections with Charles Dodgson built into the texts of sev- 
eral of George MacDonald's novels -particularly his strang- 
est and most allegorical, Lilith (1895). 

In a sense this isn't particularly surprising since 
the two men were for a time very close friends. Several of 
MacDonald's stories from the 1860s seem to echo 
Dodgson's serious poetry from the same time: the dream- 
worlds and alternative realities of Phantastes and The Por- 
tent recall Dodgson's 'Stolen Waters' and 'Faces in the Fire' 
as well as the Alice and Sylvie and Bruno books. 

Like Anodos (hero of Phantastes), the protago- 
nist of 'Stolen Waters' is seduced by afemmefatale and 
awakened to her true nature by a dawn transformation. The 
seductress in 'Stolen Waters' has 'A cold cold heart of 
stone'; Anodos asks of the Alder-maiden 'How can she be 
so beautiful and have no heart?' 

Later in the poem, the lines 'If this be madness, 
better so/Far better to be mad' echo Duncan Campbell in 
The Portent: '"Rather let me be mad still," I said, "if mad I 
am; and so dream on that I have been blessed'"; and later 
Duncan uses the fire as a focus while 'let {ting} his thoughts 
roam at will', very much as the narrator of 'Faces in the 
Fire' does. 

The complexity and closeness of aspects of this 
'cross-pollination' between MacDonald's work and 
Dodgson's are undeniably present in Lilith. Most obviously, 
there is the looking-glass as entry-point to another world, 
but there are other parallels with different pieces of 
Dodgson's work. 

The child-mother, Lona, in Lilith is almost an iden- 
tical being to the child-mother Sylvie in Dodgson's novel 
Sylvie and Bruno (1889). Unlike Lona, Sylvie has only one 
'child' - her brother Bruno, but her role as a kind of univer- 
sal symbol of angelic self-sacrificial caring is entirely the 
same. Sylvie is a quasi-stepdaughter of the comically evil 
Tabikat, while Lona is the daughter of the seriously evil 

Then there is the fluidity of identity in Lilith - again 
a repeated theme in Dodgson's work: the loss of identity 
and search for meaning. Vane's journey is perhaps an adult 
version of Alice's own: MacDonald invests the experience 
with a moral meaning that was anathema to the Dodgson 
who wrote Alice, yet in one draft of Lilith, the Raven de- 
mands that Vane identify himself in words that almost para- 
phrase the caterpillar: 'Tell me, then, who you are'. 1 

Was MacDonald deliberately adopting symbolic 
images like the mirror and the child-mother from his friend's 
internal pantheon? 

In his 1995 book The Literary Products of the 
Charles Dodgson-George MacDonald Friendship, John 
Docherty has suggested that these 'coincidences' are de- 
liberate. Indeed he goes further and proposes that in some 
sense MacDonald is deliberately homaging or satirising not 
only Dodgson's work but also his life, and indeed that 

Dodgson returned the compliment, doing the same for 
MacDonald in his own books. This is a radical suggestion, 
but one that has certain things in its favour. 

Look for example at the central male character in 
Lilith (the male version of 'Alice' if you like), known by 
the single name of 'Vane'. He is described by MacDonald 
as an Oxford man, with a profoundly sceptical, self-centred 
approach to life. In the character's own words: 

"I had myself . . . devoted a good deal of my time, 
though, I confess, after a somewhat desultory fashion, to 
the physical sciences. It was chiefly the wonder they woke 
that drew me. I was constantly seeing, and on the outlook to 
see, strange analogies, not only between the facts of differ- 
ent sciences of the same order, or between physical and 
metaphysical facts, but between physical hypotheses and 
suggestions glimmering out of the metaphysical dreams into 
which I was in the habit of falling. I was at the same time 
much given to a premature indulgence of the impulse to 
turn hypothesis into theory..." 

This certainly offers what would be a very good 
description of an aspect of Charles Dodgson's state of mind 
- particularly as a younger man. 

Like Vane in an earlier draft, Dodgson spent some 
time trying to prove the existence of a fourth dimension 
mathematically. Like Vane, he was eternally interested in 
spiritual and metaphysical problems, with a pronounced ten- 
dency to try to use scientific methods to deal with non- 
scientific things (for example his attempts in later life to 
prove logically the probability of Christ's divinity!). 

It is quite tempting, on this alone, to think that 
MacDonald may have modelled Vane at least in part on his 
Oxford friend Charles Dodgson, with his curious blend of 
mysticism and mathematical exactness. Indeed in this con- 
text Docherty quotes a cryptic little passage from one of 
the many drafts of Lilith: 

In 'Lilith B' {second of MacDonald's six manu- 
script drafts}, Vane states that the 'one reader for whom' he 
is writing is 'a college friend. . . who will himself know that 
he and no other is intended, for there can be no mistake'. 2 

Docherty infers the probability that this 'college 
friend' is MacDonald's allusion to Dodgson, who would 
indeed know that 'he and no other was intended'. 

There is only one problem with Docherty 's at- 
tempts to relate Lilith's underlying themes and allegorical 
spiritual journeys to Dodgson's own life: the life-experi- 
ence of Vane as portrayed by MacDonald just does not of- 
fer any real resemblance to the traditional interpretation of 
Lewis Carroll's existence. 

Vane is a man in spiritual crisis. Indeed the whole 
novel is a prolonged allegory of his journey from helpless 
selfish confusion into some kind of qualified spiritual re- 
birth. He is tormented by his own warring passions; he falls 
in love with the evil seductive demon Lilith and longs for 
her as a companion, even though she drains him nightly of 
his life-blood. He is nearly destroyed by his own need of 
her and his concomitant spiritual blindness, and he has to 
wander through a wild landscape of moral symbolisms, be- 


ing tested and usually found wanting, before finding even- 
tual, if qualified, salvation in the love of the child-woman 

Where are the parallels here to Carroll's alleged 

Docherty tries to find them in the single emotional 
experience that is traditionally supposed to have entered 
Dodgson's inner landscape - his supposed passion for Alice 
Liddell. But his attempts to do so are strained, because there 
is no actual prima facie evidence anywhere to show that 
Dodgson ever nurtured such a passion. Docherty (like many 
biographers before and after him) is forced into guessing 
about what Dodgson thought of the girl, and why she 'must 
have been' important to him. This is not a good basis for 
any analysis. 

Docherty does his best. He argues that Lona the 
child-woman is Alice: 'She {Lona/Lilia} was to him 
{MacDonald} almost as much a living example of ideal 
asexual femininity as Alice Liddell had been to Dodgson', 3 
but he doesn't really succeed, because this perforce narrow 
and immature emotional range cannot encompass the peaks 
and troughs of Vane's wholly adult experience. Lilith is not 
to be decanted into Alice, as a quart will never go into a pint 

In order to find the connections he is looking for 
between Vane and Dodgson and Alice Liddell, Docherty is 
forced into rather crazy quests for cryptic word games: 
'An ox is the creature most like a bull, and since 
Dodgson worked at Oxford it as just possible that 
MacDonald is alluding {in the city-name Bulika} to 
Dodgson's image of himself as a Mock Turtle - i.e. 
like a bull, but only a half-creature, and emotionally 
castrated.' 4 

In analyses like this poor Dodgson is always 'cas- 
trated', and no reason is ever given for the a priori assump- 
tion that he was morally, spiritually or physically less than a 
man. Sentences like 'Mrs Liddell... apparently felt it nec- 
essary that her daughters should be brought up to appear 
intellectually stupid. . . Dodgson was moved to help the girls, 
particularly Alice', and 'One of Dodgson's primary objec- 
tives was to rescue Alice Liddell from the treacle-well of 
her own self-indulgence' 5 seem to take us right into the crazy 
heart of Freudian analysis, where inference is built on noth- 
ing but inference, for there is not a shred of evidence any- 
where that Dodgson ever felt the need to rescue Alice 
Liddell from anything at all. 

None of this inspires much confidence in 
Docherty's theory, and the temptation is to dismiss it out of 
hand. But the irony is that, if Docherty had not confined 
himself to the 'Alice-centred' interpretation of Dodgson's 
biography, he would have found there truly is an abundance 
of evidence to support his idea. As I have tried to show else- 
where, 6 the image of Dodgson as a man focused emotion- 
ally and artistically on Alice is almost entirely unsupported 
by any known evidence. It is a profound, if very popular, 

Carroll-scholarship is in the grip of a curious and 

unique difficulty. The discipline has become absorbed by a 
largely mythic and baseless image of 'Lewis CarrolP, an 
image so powerful that it has obscured the verifiable reali- 
ties of the man's life to a truly extraordinary degree. 

For so many years the certain images of 'Carroll' 
have become so repeatedly aired and so widely accepted as 
fact that it is difficult for any of us to believe that they are 
anything but true. 

Where would our concept of 'Carroll' be without 
the mental pictures of the shy prim man, avoidant of adult 
society, regretting the maturing of his 'little friends'? Who 
is Carroll if not the quiet clergyman who adored Alice 
Liddell and spent his life regretting her vanishing from his 
lonely life? 

These images are not simply widely held, they are 
fixed and solid cultural truths - collective beliefs of con- 
siderable significance and power; reference points in hu- 
man experience. 

Yet they are false. 

They are a blend of fantasy and cosmetic over-sim- 
plification. They are myths in the true power of that word: 
invented cultural beliefs of great emotional and psychologi- 
cal meaning. They are important, they tell us things about 
ourselves - but they tell us next to nothing about Charles 

Recognising this and dealing with it is a large prob- 
lem for contemporary Carroll scholarship. It needs to be 
done, and urgently, for at present the myth lies over the facts, 
obscuring and distorting them, making rational analysis very 
difficult if not impossible. We need to go back to the 
sources, and study them without preconceptual images of 
'Carroll' in our minds. 

Beneath this ice-film of our own imaginal creation, 
Dodgson's reality flows fast and free like a winter river. If 
we punch through we can find him, almost touch him. He 
speaks in his letters, his diaries, his fiction, and the story he 
tells of his own life is often far from our own familiar 
'truths'. We just have to learn to listen to him and tune out 
the noise of our own belief. Until we do this, Carroll schol- 
arship will remain mired in the mistakes of its own past, 
condemned, as someone said, to repeat them. 

When we see how the power of this mythic 'biog- 
raphy' has impacted upon the work of one scholar, we can 
recognise the strength of its continued distorting effect on 
the discipline as a whole. It's an effect that should never be 

John Docherty has had the great insight and imagi- 
nation to see the wide-ranging connections between 
MacDonald and Dodgson. He has recognised the fascinat- 
ing possibility that Lilith may be on one level a kind of bio- 
graphical essay on Dodgson's spiritual experience. Yet the 
gap between the tormented 'Vane' of MacDonald's novel 
and the image of quiet Mr Dodgson has proved a major prob- 
lem for him and he has undermined some of his best work 
in an attempt to 'interpret' Lilith as an allegory on the mythic 
relationship between Dodgson and Alice Liddell. He is so 
constrained by this that he is even forced to omit large 


chunks of Lilith 's most obvious symbolism - for example 
the sexual temptation promised by the title character - as 
being simply too inconsistent with the Dodgson-Alice story. 

Yet ironically he had no need to bother with this. 
For in reality, beneath the ice-film, Dodgson's life did not 
revolve merely around Alice Liddell as Dreamchild and so 
much biography claims, and there is no requirement to find 
all the solutions to his emotional experience in her. In real- 
ity she was a mere part of a rich, curious and secretive ex- 
istence, which has yet to be even sketchily mapped out. 

The real Dodgson did indeed go through just such 
a profound spiritual nightmare as that reflected in Lilith, 
and at the very time that MacDonald first entered his life. 
He even expressed it in almost identical language to that 
employed in Lilith. And if Docherty had been able to know 
about this and incorporate it into his book it would have 
increased the power of his argument by a considerable mar- 
gin, yet at the time that he was writing, it was still buried in 
the snows. 

Throughout the 1 860s, as I have shown in my book, 
Dodgson was in spiritual turmoil; living a life which he fre- 
quently described as both Godless and selfish. His faith was 
'failing'. He tried to pray but seemed to 'beat the air'. When 
he preached from the pulpit he felt he was a hypocrite, 
'preaching to others, myself a castaway'. 7 In other words, 
as Morton Cohen had the insight to recognise, 'the man is 
in trouble'. 8 

His taking of the diaconate in 1861, and rejection 
of the priesthood the following year, were both done in a 
state of such profound confusion and apparent self-loath- 
ing as well as self-deception that if the honest, rigorous and 
devout George MacDonald ever knew about it he would 
surely have feared for the man's soul and wondered where 
on earth his life was taking him. And after this, between 
1 862 and 1 868, while he was closest to the MacDonald fam- 
ily, Dodgson first sank further into sporadic, near-suicidal 
misery and self-loathing, and then began a definite, but rather 
odd and qualified spiritual recovery. 

At this point we should look at two of Dodgson's 
love poems, 'Stolen Waters' (1862) and 'The Valley of the 
Shadow of Death' (1868). 

These two poems tell a virtually identical story of 
a man who is lured from righteousness and seduced into 
sinful 'pleasure'. 

'Sweet is the stolen draught' she said: 

'Hath sweetness stint or measure? 

Pleasant the secret hoard of bread: 

What bars us from our pleasure?' 

'Yes, take we pleasure while we may,' 

I heard myself replying. 

In the red sunset far away 

My happier life was dying. 


The spells that bound me with a chain 

Sin's stern behest to do, 

Till Pleasure's self, invoked in vain, 

A heavy burden grew. . . 



He becomes almost suicidal - 
Yea, when one's heart is laid asleep, 
What better than to die? 

I heard a whisper cold and clear 
'That is the gate of Death.' 

'Oh well', it said 'beneath yon pool, 
In some still cavern deep, 
The fevered brain might slumber cool, 
The eyes forget to weep.' 

- and then finds salvation through a rediscovery of 
childhood innocence. 

I heard a clear voice singing: 

Be as a child - 

So shalt thou sing for very joy of breath 

Soft fell the dying ray 
On two fair children, side by side, 
That rested from their play. 

Blest day! Then first I heard the voice 

That since has oft beguiled 

These eyes from tears, and bid rejoice 

This heart with anguish wild. 


The second poem, 'Valley', takes the story slightly 
further than the first. In this the man falls in love with and 
later marries his innocent rescuer, a child-woman who bears 
him a son and then dies. 

Though parted from my aching sight 

Like homeward-speeding dove, 

She passed into the perfect light 

That floods the world above; 

Yet our twin spirits, well I know - 

Though one abide in pain below - 

Love, as in summers long ago, 

And evermore shall love. 

The repetition shows us how haunted Dodgson was 
during this period of spiritual and emotional turmoil. It is 
indeed Dodgson 'revealing his inner self, his biting fears'. 9 

And what fears? Temptation in the form of a pow- 
erful seductress, sinful copulation, despair and confusion 
and a long exile in a landscape of spiritual despair, until even- 
tual salvation is brought to him by the love of a child-woman. 

We have encountered all this before haven't we? 
Dodgson's poetry and his private confessions of sin take us 
on an almost identical moral journey to that MacDonald 
detailed in Lilith. 

Dodgson and Vane are indeed spiritual brothers, 
and the possibility that MacDonald quite deliberately mod- 
elled the second upon the first becomes more than plau- 
sible. The buried reality of Dodgson's life offers support 


for an hypothesis that viewing from the traditional perspec- 
tive would render almost laughable. 

Surely there is a lesson here for all of us. 

The distorting effect of this great mythic 'Carroll' 
presence cannot be overestimated. It has dominated the 
scholarship for so long that it is has become all but uncon- 
querable. Almost every word of biography and literary criti- 
cism ever written has been conceived and born in the shadow 
of that image. Deconstructing this great looming mass of 
ink and certitude is no small challenge. New research is 
beginning to try, but it's a large job, and there is resistance 
to it on all sides. 

I hope this mood will pass, and that fine scholars 
like Docherty, Cohen, and others will see the discovery of 
this 'new Dodgson' as an opportunity - maybe also as a kind 
of duty. 

The man didn't ask to be 'misremembered'. He may 
have preferred not to be remembered at all. He may have 
hated to be 'known indiscriminately by what he could not 
know'. So, if we have to publish his diaries and scour his 
letters, we have a huge responsibility to try and tell as much 
of the truth as possible. He's served his time as an icon for 
other people's aspirations. Let's allow him to begin speak- 
ing for himself. 


Carroll, Lewis (1933) Collected Works. London: Nonesuch 

Cohen, Morton N. (1995) Lewis Carroll: a Biography. London: 


Docherty, John (1995) The Literary Products of the Lewis 

Carroll-George MacDonald Friendship. New York: Edwin 

Mellen Press 

Leach, Karoline (1999) In the Shadow of the Dreamchild: a new 

understanding of Lewis Carroll. London: Peter Owen 

MacDonald, George ( 1 895) Lilith 

MacDonald, George (1864) The Portent 

MacDonald, George (1 858) Phantastes 

Wakeling, Edward (ed.) (1993-9) Lewis Carroll's Diaries, vols. I- 

V. Luton: White Stone Publishing 



MacDonald 1 895 :ch. 2 


Docherty 1995: 355 


ibid.: 361 






Leach 1999 


Wakeling (ed.) 1993-9, IV: 108, V: 152, 165 


Cohen 1995: 225 


Cohen 1995: 224 


On Possible Bases of a Number System 

Francine F. Abeles 

In a recent article in The Carrollian, no.5 (Spring 
2000), "Alice's Mathematics", an interpretation of a passage 
in 'The Pool of Tears' chapter involves the possible bases 
of a number system. To explain the passage 'Let me see: 
four times five is twelve, and four time six is thirteen, and 
four time seven is - oh dear! I shall never get to twenty at 
that rate!', Kenneth S. Salins invokes both positive and 
negative numbers and zero as bases of a number system. 
But, contrary to the White Queen's belief in impossible 
things, as many as six before breakfast, we must register 
disbelief at the idea of a continuum of number bases. 1 

In a positional number system like our decimal 
system (L. decern, Gk Seica: ten), any positive integer, e.g. 
254, can be written in this way: 

254 = 2xl0 2 + 5*10 l +4xl0° 

What is important is that the meaning of the digits 
2, 5, and 4 depends on their position in the hundreds, tens, 
and units places. Using this notation, we can represent any 
nonnegative integer z uniquely in the form: 

z = a n 10" + a„-i 10"" 1 + • • • + «, 10 + a , and use the dig- 
its a n a n _ x . . .a x a as the symbol for z. (1) 

We can extend these ideas to any base which is a 
positive integer greater than one by stating the following 
theorem whose content was known to Blaise Pascal (1623- 

Each nonnegative integer z can be written uniquely 
in the form 

z = a„ k" + a„-\ k"~ x + • • ■ + «i k + a where a y and k are 

integers, k>2> 0<a t <k and a n * • &' 

The advantage that positional number systems have 

over others can be appreciated when we do arithmetical 

calculations like adding 23 + 42 = 65. In the Roman 

(nonpositional) system, for example, we would have to write: 

= LXV 

The proof of the theorem (2) depends on the 
standard division algorithm which says that if one divides a 
(positive) integer t by the nonzero integer b (the base), there 
exist unique integers q (the quotient) and r (the remainder) 
where r is nonnegative and less that the absolute value of b 
such that t = bq + r. 

Let's apply the division algorithm to the integer 
113 in our decimal system. We write it as 113 = 10x11+3. 
When we use -10 as the base we write 113 = -10x-ll+3. 
So we have two different representations of 113, but each 
integer must have a unique representation as in (1), above. 
The theorem (2) ensures this unique integer representation 
for any number base 2, or greater. The theorem also excludes 
and 1 as possible bases, and we see that neither nor 1 

make any sense when substituted appropriately into (1). 

Of course, we could state the theorem alternatively, 
for any base -2 or smaller, but that would not change the 
result, i.e. the only way to have a unique representation for 
each positive integer is to permit either positive integers 
or negative integers, but not both, to be possible bases for a 
number system. 

The importance of the uniqueness requirement 
becomes apparent when we consider how an integer is 
represented in a computer. Since a computer can only "read" 
strings of 0s and 1 s, the underlying number system of a 
machine is of base 2. When we represent decimal integers 
in base 2, we must be certain that each corresponds to 
exactly one base 2 integer, and conversely. 2 

1 . For more information on the patterns Dodgson explored in this 
passage, the reader may find my article "Multiplication in Changing 
Bases: A Note on Lewis Carroll" in Historia Mathematica 3 ( 1 976), 
183-4, of interest. 

2. 1 am grateful to Stan Lipson for illuminating conversations on topics 
discussed in this paper, and to Edward Wakeling for correcting an 
arithmetic error in an earlier version. 

Answer to Quiz, p.7 

C.H.K. Van Rooten, in his book Mots d'Heures: Gousses, 
Rames (pronounced "Mother Goose Rhymes", Grossman, 
1967) takes "Anguish Languish" on step further by 
creating nonsensical French verses which, when read 
aloud, imitate the sound of English nursery rhymes, in 
this case "Humpty Dumpty ". 

[Mere L 'Oie we roll along. . . ] 




If I Hadden Seen It, I Wooden Believe It 

John Hadden is the talented creator of a fantastic series of 
"Portraits in Wood" or "biography boxes". After deeply 
studying his subject, he sculpts the individual symbolic 
pieces out of fine woods and then carves, sands, and/or paints 
them. He may then add wire or Fimo for special effects 
(such as the surprise hidden behind Dodgson's camera). 
Everything from the box to the letters to the objects is made 
by hand, from scratch! His superb and unique portrait box 
of Lewis Carroll's life and works (measuring 32 3 A" x 35'/4" 
x 3") is available for $7,500. A color postcard is enclosed 
with this issue. Write to him at 24A Longfellow Avenue, 
Brunswick ME 04011 or call 1.207.725.4379. 


An essay on Longfellow appeared in the "Bookend" section 
of The New York Times Book Review, 22 October. Poet/ 
critic J.D. McClatchy wrote: "And in the wake of "The Song 
of Hiawatha", in 1855 - well, the nation is still cluttered 
with motels and steamboats, summer camps and high 
schools that bear the name. It was a poem imitated in French 
by Baudelaire and translated into Latin by Cardinal 
Newman's brother. As "Hiawatha's Photographing," it was 
even quickly parodied by Edward Lear. Parody is the last 
form praise takes; Lear thought Longfellow "the greatest 
living master of language", but his contemporary sendup 
("From his shoulder Hiawatha / Took the camera of 
rosewood, / Made of sliding, folding rosewood; / Neatly 
put it all together") takes primitivism into the drawing room 
with hilarious consequences." 

[Yes, and I suppose Lewis Carroll wrote "The Dong with 
the Luminous Nose".] 

[Sic], [Sic], [Sic] 

[The following is a direct quotation from Klimperei's 
website Their 
CD is available for 100FF] 

Klimperei, a french duo from Lyon, has been playing for a 
long time now, a kind of music for children, warm and 
unbalanced, fragile and funny: their sincerity and simplicity 
of which can touch or get on your nerves, it depends... A 
bit like Eric Rohmer's movies. Herein, they come back with 
a special opus from their repertoire: for the first time, 
Klimperei tried to follow a line, tacking about literary 
references and surrealistic details. Miniatures (more than 
40 numbers for 70 min of music) of carved music, ambient 

and even pop. A bit like Pascal Comelade, and all these self- 
taught artists with serene thoughts. A work recognized by 
their peers since the artwork is made by Alifie Benge who 
is used to illustrate the CDs of Robert Wyatt. Really dreamt! 
Alice is to the wonders what the penicillium is to the 
Roquefort. Wonders which punctuate life with amazements, 
little fears, obsessions or absurdities. Not a marshmallow 
world where Manicheism rules social life. In this 
wonderland, queens are puzzling (sometimes disgusting), 
animals talk about uninteresting things (in the grown-up 
sense), and vicious circles settle, without modifying the 
rythm of life though. Everything seems natural, because 
these surrealistic nonsenses are not very different from ours. 
Heads?, we cut some everyday in a way. And this is where 
Lewis Carroll did a mistake: the story of Alice is everything 
but a dream. This is what Klimperei tries to make us live 
once more through a soft drive inside the text of Lewis 
Carroll and in the Alice's advenures. We are not so far from 
breaking through the mirror to madness. Klimperei's 
deceptively simple tunes and musical arrangements are the 
perfect reflection of false stupidities of the book. Comic 
half-obsolete half-flicted songs, melancolic atmospheres 
and reeks of bombast (beurk...). Klimperei suggests a true 
concept siidi, remaining humble and sincere. 

O dear, O dear 

Since all is well with the Jabberwock {KL 64, p. 19), now 
it's the White Rabbit's turn to be missing. Thieves using 
heavy equipment lifted the nearly 6-foot tall, 650-pound 
bronze statue, valued at more than $75,000, from its 
foundations outside Fiddler's Green Amphitheater 
(Englewood, CO) last month. The White Rabbit was sculpted 
by Harry Marinsky, 81, and was the first of eight sculptures 
built around AW themes [KL 52, p.ll]. Five other bronze 
statues are on display there; others are at the Museum of 
Outdoor Art ( 

"I'm sorry, but all the King's men aren't 
approved providers for your HMO." 


d^Sf JStacBf^ 8c ®PPJf«, 

We're Off to See the Gryphon 

An article, "Oz is Us: Celebrating the Wizard's 
Centennial", by John Updike in The New Yorker, September 
25, 2000, discusses Martin Gardner's "reluctance to perform 
an annotation to the first Oz book, as he did for Carroll". 
Updike comments "It is not hard to imagine why Gardner 
ducked the original assignment. The two Alice books are 
more literate, intricate, and modernist than Baum's 
Wonderful Wizard, and Lewis Carroll's mind, laden with 
mathematical lore, chess moves, semantic puzzles, and the 
riddles of Victorian religion, was more susceptible to 

Oz and Wonderland, like most siblings, have 
enjoyed an uneasy relationship over the years. They are often 
mingled or confused (the Muppets' adaptation of Alice in 
Wonderland ended with the characters singing "We're off 
to see the Wizard"; the comic book series "The Oz- 
Wonderland Wars"; the recent Jimmy Zangwow's Out-of- 
this-world Moon Pie Adventure, and so many others), as 
they both involve a young girl traveling to odd and foreign 
lands. However, Baum's (quite derivative) land is a sort of 
wr-Kansas, with the denizens being small twists on her 
family, friends, and pets, living a life of stringent morality. 
Carroll's whimsy, amorality and irrealis is of a far more 
original and brilliant order. L.Frank Baum, the "Royal 
Historian of Oz", wrote fourteen books; there are three or 
four times that number in the "canon" today, written by other 

Martin Gardner has achieved quite a coup in at last 
reconciling these sister lands. His delectable Visitors from 
Oz (St. Martin's Press, 1998; 0-312-19353-X) is a fine, 
fun, adventuresome tale for "children of all ages". Built 
around a frame story of a movie producer (whose last 
success was "Alice in Carrolland") importing Dorothy back 
from Oz to New York for publicity purposes (he managed 
to reach Glinda through the Internet!), the tale unfolds both 
in Oz and in the "real" world. Dorothy and her two 
companions meet characters from Greek myth, Wonderland 
and Looking-GIass-land, and also genuine personages like 
Stephen Jay Gould. An added layer to the palimpsest for 
Gardner's many fans is to trace how many of his own 
passions can be found therein: mathematical games and 
puzzles; puns; chess and cards; non-Euclidean geometry; 
skepticism and debunking; Sherlock Holmes; multiple 
levels, self-referentiality and frame-breaking (the Mad 
Hatter refers to "The Annotated Alice by the same man who's 
writing this Oz book") and so on. Well worth a read! 

Soto Voce 

Reflections on Lewis 
Carroll by "Various Hands", a 
fascinating chapbook of critical 
essays edited by Fernando J. Soto 
assisted by Dayna McCausland, was published recently by 
the L.C. S.Canada, and is free to all its members. Dues are 
only cdn$15 in Canada; us$13 in the States; and us$15 for 
international members. You can buy the book alone for 
us$12/us$ 13 (international) plus postage, but then you'd miss 
out on the joys of "White Rabbit Tales", their worthy news- 
letter. Write to Dayna: sheer, or Box 
321, Erin ON, NOB 1T0 Canada. 

The volume contains "Carroll's Easter Bunny" by 
John Docherty, "Lewis Carroll and the Law" by Peter 
Wesley-Smith, "Alice's Adventures Away from Home: The 
Misunderstanding of Life, Language and Culture in 
Wonderland and the Looking-Glass World" by Monica 
McCarter, "Framing the Dream Vision in the Alice Books" 
by Chris Pezzarello, "Two Important Logical Insights by 
Lewis Carroll" by George Englebretsen, "Lewis Carroll's 
Legal Snark and Gilty (sic) Mind: 'The Barrister's Dream' 
Interpreted" by Fernando J. Soto, and "Why Alice Accepts 
Her Humble Position in the Looking-Glass Chess Game" 
by Glen Downey. 

Lithe and Slimy 

Editions of TTLG generally range from the sublime 
to the mundane, but an entirely new category of "fescinnine 
pudendous sludge" must be created for the bottom-feeding, 
dolorific effrontery of the "Creation Classic Portable" 
paperback edition by Creation Books of the U.K. (1-84068- 
021-0, $11, £7). The caprylic perversities of the babblative 
introducer, a fastuous and egolatrous flaneur called Jeremy 
Reed, spill over into his filipendulous and discrutiating 
foreword, seeing Dodgson only in cacodoxial terms of 
wholly imagined sexual obsessions, and the work itself as 
"a covert paean to hallucinogenic drug abuse" with Reed's 
only "scholarship" being mucid references to the carminative 
lyrics of brummagem English pop groups of the 1960s and 
beyond. Ah, but the insolence doesn't stop there. Trevor 
Brown's maltalented and anapologetical exspuitation on the 
cover portrays a tutmouthed, concupiscible Alice with legs 
akimbo and unsuitable underwear on exhibitionistic display. 
A stegnotic would be in order. Shame on them. 


from Oar rar-pan^ 


Broadview Literary Texts have pro- 
duced a superb and inexpensive 
scholarly edition of AW, under the 
editorship of Richard Kelly. The series 
"presents the text together with a 
variety of documents from the period, 
giving readers a rich sense of the world 
from which [they] emerged." It 
includes an introductory essay, a 
chronology, the full texts of A W, Alice 's 
Adventures under Ground, The 
Nursery Alice, and "Alice on the 
Stage", excerpts from Symbolic Logic 
and his diaries and letters, the difficult- 
to-find "Alice's Recollection of 
Carrollian Days" from The Cornhill 
Magazine (1932), contemporary 
reviews, photographs, and excerpts 
from other children's literature of the 
time,; 1- 
55111-223-X, $10 in paperback. 

The Artful Dodger: Images and 
Reflections reflects on the career of 
author/illustrator Nick Bantock, with 
insights into his editions of 
"Jabberwocky" and "The Walrus and the 
Carpenter". $40 hardcover from 
Chronicle Books (0811827526) or as 
a 2001 Engagement Calendar 
(0811827003) for $15. 

Sci-fi "Hugo" Nominees, 1999, ed. 
Rhias K. Hall, Alexandria Digital 
Literature, $25 (0-7420-0625-5) 
includes "Hunting the Snark" by Mike 

Taking my Cue from the Walrus by 
Bonnie Gartstone, Small Poetry Press, 
Box 5342, Concord CA 94524. 

Jimmy Zangwow's Out-of-this-world 
Moon Pie Adventure by Tony DiTerlizzi 
(grades 1-4) mixes Alician and Ozian 
characters. From Simon & Schuster 
0689822154. $16. 

Alice in a Miniaturebook (2 l A inches 
square), a radically abridged A W/TTLG 
(in English) illustrated by Nakajima 
Youichi and Okamoto Naoko from 
Annie's Coloring Studio in Japan, is for 
sale by the L.C.S. (U.K.). The book 


costs £12 or $20, post free. They can 
accept cheques made payable to 'The 
Lewis Carroll Society', drawn in 
sterling on a U.K. bank, or checks in 
U.S. dollars drawn on a U.S. bank. Alan 
White, 69 Cromwell Road, Hertford, 
Herts., SG13 7DP, U.K. 01992 
584530 or 

Alices Pop-Up Wonderland (Macmil- 
lan Children's Books, £15) . "A pop- 
up carousel features the six scenes with 
more than 30 press-out figures. There 
are lots of surprises behind the flaps 
and pull-out tabs, plus a mini-board 
game of the Queen's croquet match." 
A review in the Daily Mail (London) 
says "...The book announces itself as 
by Nick Denchfield and Alex Vining, 
though by inspecting the back cover 
under a powerful microscope it is also 
possible to pick out the names of Lewis 
Carroll and John Tenniel. Perhaps they 
would prefer it so. The illustrations are 
all based on Tenniel (as the text is on 
Carroll) though in a rather fuzzy and 
anaemic fashion." 0333901134. 

"Charming Classics" (HarperCollins) 
AW with a small "gold" White Rabbit 
charm on a chain, $6. 0-694-0145400. 

Signet Classic's AW/TTLG with an 
introduction by Martin Gardner, has 
been reissued as a mass market 
paperback ($4, 0451527747). 

A poster enclosed with the book 
reveals that Jassen Ghiuselev's 
absolutely superb set of sepia 
monochrome illustrations to Alice im 
Wunderland (retold by Barbara 
Frischmuth), are in fact pieces of a 
larger work, a true artistic tour-de- 
force. Afbau-Verlag, Berlin, 2000; 3- 

Donald Knuth has published "Biblical 
Ladders" in The Mathemagician and 
Pied Puzzler : A Collection in Tribute 
to Martin Gardner, edited by E. 
Berlekamp and T Rodgers, A.K. Peters, 


1999. "Biblical Ladders" is a version 
of Carroll's "Doublets"; Knuth is the 
Stanford premier computer scientist; 
Berlecamp is the Berkeley mathe- 
matician famous for his books on Go. 
$34; 156881075X. 

Lynne Truss' novel Tennyson's Gift 
(1996: Penguin, U.K., 0241135214), 
about the "Freshwater Circle" 
(Tennyson and Julia Margaret Cameron 
had nearby cottages on the Isle of 
Wight) and their invited luminaries 
such as G. F. Watts, his wife Ellen 
Terry, and CLD, has been translated into 
French by Hugues Lebailly. 

The naming of The White Queen s 
Dictionary of One-Letter Words (with 
over seven hundred entries!) was 
inspired by her majesty's "And I'll tell 
you a secret — I can read words of one 
letter! Isn't that grand!?" in TTLG. You 
can see a sample and order it from 
oneletter;; $11 + 
p&h from Pivotal, Inc., 307 Dumont 
Drive, Hillsborough, NC 27278. 

Alice Falling, the first novel by 
William Wall, W. W. Norton & 
Company, is a loathsome exercise 
about an affluent group of friends 
whose boredom and despair combust 
into tragedy. Although inspired by the 
first scene of the Alice books, it is a 
thoroughly depressing modernist 

Two of Totem Books' "Introducing" 
series use Alician imagery on their 
covers: Introducing the Universe and 
Introducing Mathematics. 

Performances Noted 

Alice in Bed, a play written by Susan 
Sontag in 1992, had its New York 
premier in November. "The play is ? 
free fantasy based on some elementary 
givens of this life, braided with imagery 
from AW- the most famous Alice of 
the 19 th century - to evoke completely 
contemporary themes." The title 
character is Alice James, the brilliant, 
depressed sister of the novelist Henry 

James and the psychologist William 
James, and the Wonderland references 
include a tea party. 

Alice in Modernland by Kirsten Nash 
at the Sledgehammer Theatre, San 
Diego CA, October/November. In this 
adult fairy tale, Alice tries to break into 
the music industry. 

TTLG adapted by Eric Schmiedl, 
Cleveland (OH) Play House children's 
theater in late November. 

Santoro Graphics in London has been 
honored at the Greetings Card 
Association International Card of the 
year contest for the third year running. 
Their A W "depth card" was awarded this 
year's International Louie Award for its 
entry in the blank/non-occasion 
category. [Does an un-birthday 
qualify for a "non-occasion"?] The 
awards, begun in 1988, were named 
after the father of American greetings, 
Louis Prang. "Depth Cards are just one 
of a range of greetings which include 
swing cards, bang on the door and flux 

The annual "Diagram Group Prize" 
nominations by readers of The 
Bookseller magazine for the oddest 
title of the year include Psoriasis at 
Your Fingertips, Woodcarving with a 
Chainsaw, Whose Bottom? A Lift-the- 
Flap Book, and Did Lewis Carroll Visit 

Places and Events 

"Alice's Wicked Wonderland Tour" 
publicized the release of the horrific 
and violent video game by Electronic 
Arts (see KL 64, p. 22 or www.alice. at the Sound Factory dance 
club in San Francisco on 26 October 
(and other venues) with a multimedia 
"rave" featuring Goth game designer 
American McGee, a circus troupe, 
"house music", AW fractal videos, and 
so forth. Natalie Portman, 19, (Queen 
Amidala in "Star Wars") has been lined 
up to play Alice in the just-announced 
film version, to be directed by 
"Scream" and "Nightmare on Elm 
Street" director Wes Craven. Eeek! 

The Mad Hatter's 14th Annual Tea 
Party will take place February 23-25, 
2001 in Portland, Maine. It's all about 

tattooing. See 
RobFAM 1 0/Madhatters.html. 

The Cheshire Cat Brewpub, housed in 
a restored Victorian mansion built in 
1891, opened its doors at 7803 Ral- 
ston Road in Denver CO. 

A life-size painted fiberglass cow 
depicting scenes from AW by mural 
artist Debbi Unger is part of a four- 
month exhibition called "WACOWS", 
benefiting The Art Center in Waco, TX. 
The WACOWS were publicly auctioned 
December 9 Ih through live and Internet 

Beverly Wallace's series of collo- 
graphic prints of "Jabberwocky" was 
the subject of a one person exhibit at 
the Hutchiuns Gallery of Long Island 

"The Art of Grace Slick" at Artrock in 
San Francisco Nov/Dec featured 
acrylic paintings (an acid-based 
medium), including an AW with 
Timothy Leary as the Hatter, Lennon / 
McCartney as the Bros. Tweedle and 
so on. 

Alice's Shop in Oxford is currently 
working to establish an A W Gallery and 
Tearoom two doors from the shop, 
which will be on the ground floor of a 
building on the corner of Rose Place 
and St. Aldates, directly opposite the 
gates of the Christ Church memorial 
gardens. They have put out a call for 
artists and craftspeople to submit work 
based on an Alician theme for 
exhibition and sale through the Alice's 
Shop Gallery. They are interested in all 
media, including paintings, prints, 
ceramics, pottery, sculpture, jewelry 
and so forth. Contact Luke Gander.; www.sheep; 83 St. Aldates, Oxford, OX1 
IRA, U.K.; 01865 723793; -726752 


Dr. Sandor Burstein inaugurated a 
series of "Peer Presentations" by 
speaking on "Down the Rabbit Hole 
with Alice: Into the Mind and Books 
of Lewis Carroll" at the Fromm 
Institute in San Francisco, 25 

Professor Francine Abeles of Kean 
University, speaking on "LC's 4 Game' 
of Voting", considers CLD "a voting 
theorist second only to the great 
eighteenth century social scientist and 
philosopher, the Marquis de Con- 
dorcet". November 9 at Adelphi Uni- 
versity in Garden City NY. 

The doctoral dissertation of Martina 
Paatela-Nieminen, Lic.Art, entitled 
"On the Threshold of Intercultural 
Alices: Intertextual research on the 
illustrations of the English Alice in 
Wonderland and the German Alice im 
Wunderland with respect to inter- 
media research in the field of art 
education", has been published by the 
University of Art and Design Helsinki 
as a CD-ROM. Contact mpaatela Orders: 
+358 9 7563 0319; 


Illustration House (New York), 4 
November, had the original art by Frank 
Adams of "Alice and the Rabbit" from 
Stories Old and New. 

With nearly 2000 items by and about 
Lewis Carroll, the Hilda Bohem 
collection is now being sold as a unit 
through Needham Book Finders for 
$150,000. Contact Stanley Kurman, 
Needham Book Finders, PO Box 3067, 
Santa Monica, CA 90408; 310.395. 

Movies and Television 

The 1999 British live-action television 
film "Alice Through the Looking- 
Glass", directed by John Henderson 
and featuring Ian Holm, Ian Richardson, 
and Sian Phillips was broadcast several 
times on HBO-Family throughout 
October. The movie includes the "Wasp 
in a Wig" chapter. 

According to an interview in Parade, 
22 October, actress Lucy Liu ("Ally 
McBeal", "Charlie's Angels") got her 
start in acting in an AW production at 
University of Michigan, where she had 
the title role. 

In "The Sight", a 1999 serial-murder 
mystery movie made for television and 
known in the U.K. as "Shadows", a 
young American architect is sent to 
Britain to refurbish an old London 
hotel and finds himself exposed to a 


chain of unusual events, strange 
visions, ghosts and frightening dreams. 
CLD and a girl named Alice both make 


An admirable website, thoughtfully and 
engagingly designed and full of 
fascinating specialties including 
perhaps the most comprehensive over- 
view yet of the various films and 
television adaptations, is the brainchild 
of Larry Hall. Other 'goodies' include 
a feature on the Alice shop in Oxford, 
a Dodgson-inspired 'jukebox', a tour 
around the 'Curious Labyrinth' 
attraction in Disneyland Paris, and an 
AW adaptation which combines the 
Tenniel illustrations with a real-life 
Alice (his five-year-old grand-daughter 
Annie Louise), www.alice-in-wonder 

Ottawa based 
debuted its new name, KidZlibrary. 
com, its new look and first free 
content: the complete AW (four hours 
long), read by Peter Cochrane, 
illustrated by Ryan MacKeen, and 
making use of the RealPlayer engine. 

Lenny de Rooy, a 21 -year old Dutch 
woman, has established a welcoming 
website for students at www.student. 

The L.C.S. (U.K.) website now contains 
the full table of contents and keyword 
search for all issues of Jabberwocky 
(its journal before it became The 
jabberwocky.'s "Virtual Reading Group" 
( discussed 
AWmd TTLG in September, 2000. 

Programmers are a playful lot, and have 
been known to insert hidden goodies 
known as "Easter Eggs" in the operating 
systems and applications they have 
engineered. Clicking the right 
combination of keys can produce 
hidden video games in Microsoft 
Word, and so on. One of them is called 
the "Mad Hatter screensaver", which 
changes the popular "pipes" 
screensaver (for Windows and NT), 
periodically making one of the joints 
into a teapot. See and 
type in "Easter Eggs" in the Search 

A list of Carroll's appearances on 
postage stamps, as well as many 
fascinating recreational math and chess 
problems and puzzles are found at 
Mario Velucci's website http:// 

Cecil Adams' ("The Straight Dope") 
article refuting Richard Wallace 
contention that Dodgson was Jack the 
Ripper can be found at http://www. 

An excellent tribute page to actress 
Kathryn Beaumont, the voice of 
Disney's Alice, at http://www.don 

Some basic information about Dennis 
Potter's 1965 ur-Dreamchild teleplay 
Alice can be found at 

A list of "Musical Compositions 
Inspired by Lewis Carroll" can be found 
at Markus Lang's site 
-mlang/carroll-music.html, which 
points also to his Carroll biography in 

Photographs of absolutely marvelous 
sand sculptures at http://www.sand 

The Tony Sarg Mad Hatter marionette 
(c. 1920) is visible at www. 
strange.html#MadHatter. Some images 
of Bill Baird's Alice puppets (1974) at 

An essay by amateur astronomer Hans 
Havermann showing the night sky on 
Alice Liddell's birthday believes that 
the Cheshire Cat may have been a 
metaphor for the moon. http://mem 


"Tn the Midst of his Laughter and 
Glee': Nonsense and Nothingness in 
Lewis Carroll" by Elizabeth Sewell in 
Soundings: An Interdisciplinary 
Journal, Vol. LXXXII, No. 3-4, Fall/ 
Winter '99 (actually, it was published 
in November '00). (Soundings is the 
new title of The Christian Scholar and 
not the boating magazine.) Reprints of 
this superb and important study by the 
premier nonsense scholar are available 
from SVHE, 633 SW Montgomery St., 


Portland OR 97201; 503.721.6520; ~3 

The British Gentleman s Quarterly for 
December 2000 contains "Malice in 
Wonderland", twelve pages of photo- 
graphs of celebrities dressed in Alician 
costumes having a tea party and 
generally misbehaving. Supermodel 
Kate Moss is the White Rabbit, Jade 
Jagger the Cheshire Cat, Elizabeth 
Jagger is Alice, Anita Pallenberg is the 
Queen of Hearts, and so on. The 
pictures were taken by "society fixture 
and photographer" Dan Macmillan. 

"Language Heads Down the Rabbit 
Hole" by John Schwartz in the New York 
Times "Week in Review" section, 20 
December, refers to Tom Stoppard, 
Carroll, and so on. 

"Lewis Carroll - mathematician and 
teacher of children" by Canon D. B. 
Eperson in The Mathematical Gazette 
Volume 84 Number 499, March 2000. 
It can be downloaded in .pdf format at 

The October edition of PC Gaming 
World was accompanied by a free CD- 
ROM containing a four minute preview 
of American McGee's Alice. A review 
of the pathologically violent game can 
be seen in "Down a Rabbit Hole to a 
Dark Wonderland" by Charles Herold, 
The New York Times, 2 1 December. 


The first "Limited Edition Sericel" of 
"Disney Leading Ladies" contains 
photographs and signatures of the 
actresses who were the voices of 
Cinderella (Eileen Woods), Sleeping 
Beauty (Mary Costa), and Alice 
(Kathryn Beaumont) along with 
drawings of the characters. Edition of 
1,500. $475. 

Actress Sally Fields reads an 
abridgment of AW on audio cassette 
(0671581120) or CD (0743506413). 
From Simon & Schuster. $20. 

Nintendo's "Game Boy Color" game 
based on Disney's AW was released in 

Herbert Bauman's 1925 composition 
of AW ballet music has been recorded 
by the Radio-Philharmonie Hannover 
des NDR and released on CD by Thoro- 

fon (CTH 2360), with a booklet in 
English and French. 
Grynne, a band from Reno, has 
recorded "Pictures & Conversations" 
on the In Stead Music label; described 
as a "musical accompaniment" to a 
retelling of A W. In MP3 DAT format 
165/grynne.html or conventional CD 
format from P.O. Box 60254, Reno 
NV 89506. 

A new line of hand-painted resin tree 
ornaments based on the "AW Ten Pins" 
figures; $15 each from the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art store; 800. 

An AW Magic Mug - the full Tenniel 
illo, not the common abbreviated 
headshot - $13 from The Unemployed 
Philosophers Guild, 61 Pearl St Suite 
508, Brooklyn, NY 11201; 718.243. 
9492 or 800.255.8371; hegelian @aol. 
com; www.philosophers guild, com. 
They also carry "Freudian slippers" and 
a host of other wackiness. 

According to the instruction manual for 
The Dragon NaturallySpeaking Mobile 
Organizer (a voice-to-text program), to 
separate items one should either stop 
recording between them or say the 
word "Jabberwocky". 
Quotablemagnets with the Queen's 
dialog about impossible things, from 
quotablecards, 611 Broadway Suite 
810, New York NY 10012, 212.420. 
7552 or -8 fax. 

Cement Alice garden statue (25 !4" 
high) from Gumps, $100; 800.284. 
Muriel Ratcliffe at the Alice in 
Wonderland Centre in Llandudno has 
available an interactive AW CD-ROM 
by Joriko. "It is a full feature length CD 
(Windows compatible) which includes 
12 interactive puzzles and games, 
beautifully presented in wonderful 
colour graphics, and narrated by Simon 
Callow. It retails at £25 or us$40 (10% 
discount for LCS and LCSNA 
members),; 3 & 

4 Trinity Square, Llandudno, North 
Wales, UK. [Or directly from www. 
joriko. com] 

Jan Svankmajer's Alice is now on DVD. 
Unfortunately, it does not include his 
short 1971 film of "Jabberwocky" 
(Zvahlav aneb Saticky Slameneho 
Hubert a). 

The current run of the DC Comics 
comic book The Flash has a continuing 
story where he goes into a looking- 
glass universe. It's not Alice's 
wonderland, but the writer says that he 
used the books as a template. 
Handpainted porcelain boxes of 
Disney AW characters from the PHB 
collection by Midwest of Cannon Falls 
$25 each. The Paragon Catalog: 
Dave Kellum, now halfway through his 
marvelous series of twelve Tenniel- 
based clay sculptures (AX 64, p.23) 
most of which also function as lamps, 
has changed his home page to http:// 

Alice in transformation to Humpty Dumpty 
Fat Alice, 1973 

Study of Disney's Cheshire Cat 
Scientific Alician, February 1980 

Father William and Son 
Alitji in the Dreamtime, 1975 

Ue front cover coCCaqe digpCays tke astonishing variety of BV'OH 
SeweeeS teeustratioHS. AM Inaaes copyrigM ©2000 6y Bwoh SmeCS. 

Welsh Jabberwockarus 
Scientific Alician, October 1981 

Frog Footman 
The Annotated Alice in Nurseryland, 2000 

The Pool of Tears 

An, Sun-Hee's Adventures Under the 

Land of the Morning Calm, 1990 

u- • ffc^Vc *™> Hue to Fran Abeles Gary Brockman, Llisa Demetrios Burstein, Sandor 
tunes a yedianu membership dues are U.S. $20 (regular) ana 

kir^H£ p £^si» *- «- - - - — * b °* ** miu va,,ey 

TA 94942 or preferably, by e-mail, below. 

Pres Lent ^phanie Lovett Secretary: Cindy Watter, 

V.P and Editor: Mark Burstein, 
The Lewis Carroll Society of North America Home Page: